France and 1848: The End of Monarchy
The s were politically unstable, marked by challenges to the regime by the legitimists and republicans, as well as attempts to assassinate the king.
Monarchy abolished in France
A period of remarkable stability began c. Guizot, devoted to the king and the preservation of the status quo, became the key figure in the ministry. In foreign affairs, the regime maintained friendly relations with Britain and supported Belgian independence. However, in general unrest led to the February Revolution and the end of the July monarchy.
The French revolution of 1848
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The unrest that filled the first half of the reign of Louis-Philippe was often of a socialist nature. The first wanted to fight the clericalism and support the democratic movement in the country, the second thought the revolution was over, and tried to put an end to the republican movement. The Ministry relied on former chambers, of which individuals who did not want to take the oath of the new constitution were removed. November 3, , due to the resignation of Guizot and his supporters, the formation of the office was entrusted to Laffitte.
A significant part of the population of Paris demanded their execution, more than once threatening to seize the prison, which had to be guarded by military force. Four ministers were sentenced in December to life imprisonment; their process has repeatedly provoked serious street riots, during which public elements, not satisfied with the outcome of the revolution of , wanted to implement a new one.
France and 1848
The supporters of the Restoration Regime fought for power, and the youngest Henry V, the Duke of Bordeaux, who had renounced the throne of Charles X, was nominated to the throne. On February 14, , on the anniversary of the death of the Duke of Berry, they made a demonstration in the form of a solemn requiem in Paris. The masses of people were responsible for the defeat of the church and the house of the archbishop.
In , the widow of the Duke of Berry, attempted to cause a serious uprising in the Vendee where she herself became the head of the insurgents who had sustained several battles with government troops, but was arrested during the fight. The commercial and industrial crisis that erupted in and created a mass of unemployed, especially in Paris, as well as the cholera of caused constant unrest in the country, acted depressingly on the exchange, and placed the ministry in an extreme predicament.
The uprising in Paris took place on June 5 and 6, The uprising in Lyon, April , , was caused, on the one hand, by a strike of workers, and on the other — by severe police measures against political communities. The resistance of workers lasted 5 days, after which barricades were taken down and insurgents were killed, or arrested. From March to January , there was a process of accused in the House of Peers for participation in the April uprising.
Another manifestation of discontent were the numerous attempts on the life of the king at least 7 , although they were always committed by individuals or small groups on their own responsibility and not by the thought of the whole party. The most famous of them is the attempt of Fieska, in As early as , a law was issued against the insult to Majesty and the Chambers, in — a law that banned street gatherings, in — a law that forbade the possession of weapons without permission, and the law on associations, by virtue of which all Associations of more than 20 members needed a preliminary government clearance, which at any time could be taken back.
Membership in unresolved associations was punishable by a prison of up to 1 year and a fine of up to 1, francs.
The same press law raised the pledge from daily newspapers to , francs. However, he could not kill the oppositions press.
Causes of the French Revolution
Thus, this liberal law also had in mind only the interests of the rich classes. In , the ministry of October 11, having changed its president several times, in essence remained the same, due to rivalry between Thiers and Guizot. By this time a new grouping of parties had been formed in the Chamber of Deputies.